The Australian National era...

Australian National Railways
On 1st March 1978 the Australian National Railways Commission came into being as an agency of Australia's federal government. It comprised the previous state railways systems of South Australia and Tasmania, and the former Commonwealth Railways. Its headquarters were established in Adelaide, one of the conditions of the sale of the SAR by the Dunstan State Government to the Whitlam Federal Government. There was a genuine attempt over several years to integrate the staff of the two mainland systems, but many of the Port Augusta based ex-CR staff eventually disappeared. During this time, corporate reorganisations occurred, and familiar titles such as "Chief Traffic Manager" vanished, being replaced with more modern and more important sounding ones. During this interim period little happened, schedules were mainly unaffected, and the only noticeable changes in the eye of the public were the painting of "Australian National Railways" instead of "Commonwealth Railways" on the sides of some Commonwealth locomotives, "ANR" in three boxes on the sides of SAR locomotives, the removal of the state emblem from the front of ex-SAR engines, and ANR as the railway company's name on Train Order forms and Working Timetables. This was essentially a "re-badged" operation, the "re-engineering" was yet to come.

Illustration of various liveries
State assets transferred to the Commonwealth included the well established manufacturing and repair facilities at Islington (Adelaide). Islington had built many early locomotives and other vehicles, all of the stainless steel clad carbon steel bodied joint-stock (owned jointly by the Victorian and South Australian governments) passenger cars for the "Overland" Adelaide-Melbourne service, and similar but only slightly different vehicles for SAR's exclusive use. They had also built three different versions of the classic "Bluebird" self-propelled diesel-hydraulic MUs, and the very basic but similarly powered Adelaide suburban cars which the commuting public immediately nicknamed "Red Hens" on account of their paintwork colour. The entire Mile End freight yard and locomotive servicing complex also went to the new owners (ANR), who inherited what was possibly the largest single employer work-force in the state; small wonder then that the Premier required the headquarters to be in Adelaide under the terms of transfer.

Illustrations of old car sheds, Adelaide station etc. Last Overland departs Adelaide

With the construction of their new multi-story corporate headquarters adjacent to the freight yards at Mile End, and the new passenger terminal they "had to" build between it and the city cemetery in order to avoid an ongoing access charge to the central city station, the time was right to launch their new corporate image which was a complete livery change to a mid green (which fades blotchily in the bright sunlight) and gold (which bleaches to a pale yellow for the same reason).

The first repaint in corporate colours was a 930-class Alco and its grain train photographed en route on the broad gauge from Lameroo in the Murraylands, and this was published shortly before ANR abandoned the more convenient city centre terminus - more convenient to travellers, but one suspects a bureaucratic rivalry between governments was responsible for what many see as a "White Elephant" at Keswick. Repainting of much of the fleet followed quickly. The Commonwealth of Australia diecast coat of arms on the fronts of the GMs, CLs and ALs, and the sides of the original (German) Wegmann-built all-steel air conditioned "Trans" carriages vanished overnight, as had previously the SAR state emblem (a stylised magpie incorrectly described heraldically as a "Piping Shrike") from their fleet of engines. Rumours abounded - some that they were deliberately smashed and then melted down, others that they were individually stolen and/or sold for souvenirs; the truth will never be known. However, 900 on its last revenue trip had a State badge screwed to its nose prior to its departure, and GM1, back in its 1950s colour scheme (and still running in 1999) had its coat of arms restored, although the latter is known to be a more recently manufactured imitation using laser cutting technology.

Illustrations from old Trans and the state emblem

ANR becomes AN
The Australian National Railways, with the introduction of its corporate image also designed a stylised logotype, and both logo and organisation immediately became nicknamed "snailrail" because of the shape. However, its consistently poor timekeeping ensured the continuance of that nickname. The cost of the changes implemented must have been quite horrendous, and economies immediately became apparent, with services here, there and wherever being cut back.

While AN pressed on with the very necessary standardisation of the Port Pirie line, there was ongoing public outcry about the way in which changes in the railways over the years had, and would continue to cause the demise of complete towns in the mid-north, with the added problem, of course, that those who owned their own homes would never be able to realise any price at all if they tried to sell. What work there was, was almost all associated in one way or another with rail, had dried up, and schools and hospitals were being closed, leaving just the elderly and infirm in the communities, and without any services. The town of Terowie is a good example.

AN logo, Illustration of Terowie

However, there may be another reason for the organisation becoming cash-strapped. Anecdotal evidence from several ex SAR/CR/ANR/AN employees suggests that the money transferred from the State to the Commonwealth included considerable sums held in reserve employee superannuation and long service leave, a legal requirement under the laws throughout Australia. It is rumoured that at about this time, the Commonwealth saw fit to appropriate those funds into their general revenue, with the moneys that should have been held to the ANRC's credit being written off as a debit charge to the new corporation. The truth or otherwise of this situation would be difficult to establish so many years later.

Eventually, even Port Pirie was by-passed, a loop being constructed parallel to the Highway One bypass, and a passenger platform named "Coonamia" installed - this was possibly lip-service to passenger traffic as for a while a mini-bus service was available connecting with Port Pirie, or taxis could be booked in advance to meet a train, but eventually trains ceased stopping except to cross an opposing movement. The new station built in the early 1970s as an interchange, replacing the old Port Pirie Junction station and the main street station at Ellen Street handles absolutely no traffic - neither freight or passenger - any more. The effect on the local community needs to be seen to be believed.

Illustrations of Port Pirie Junct, 3 chain Rd, etc

First generation engines - a "mixed bag"
Although the management of the newly formed Australian National Railways was (initially) largely that of the old South Australian Railways, who had favoured Alco motive power all along, and had never used General Motors products (except for Detroit diesel auxiliary power sets on railcars and in generator vans), the decision was made to standardise on EMD (Electromotive Division of General Motors) on all future locomotive orders. The Commonwealth had used EMD exclusively, built by Clyde Engineering (under licence to GM) at Granville, since "going diesel" at the end of the War.

Illustrations of SAR Alcos

The fleet of 1800hp 600-class (delivered 1965) and 700-class Goodwin-Alcos, purchased by the SAR in 1971 with Standard Gauge in mind, were identical with New South Wales models purchased at the same time. In fact, the 700s would have been a repeat order for 600s had not A E Goodwin (the Australian Alco licencee) advised the SAR about the new full width carbody double cab model just ordered by NSWGR as their 442-class. It seems logical to an outsider, therefore, that when the new AN fleet was up and running, that NSW should be offered the opportunity to buy the 600s and 700s at a bargain price, but this never actually happened, although a few units were leased for a while.

Port Pirie depot enginemen and fitters always claimed that the 2nd-generation Clyde-GM CLs and ALs inherited from the Commonwealth could never be as reliable as the Alcos on the run to Broken Hill, and for once gut feelings seemed to be wrong, as the heat and dust of the Nullarbor and the Marree run were identical conditions to that of the Port Pirie - Broken Hill run with smelter ore and long heavy through interstate freight to and from Perth and Sydney, and the pressurised EMD units had proved themselves well on the Commonwealth. That is not to say that the earlier fleet of six four-traction motor GM class were originally faultless; improved pressurisation was needed from the start, as can be seen from the changes to the side vents and fan hatches from the original supply. The last true CR locos, the ALs, also suffered problems on introduction, not the least their being overweight.

GMs were ordered in several batches, and were essentially "stretched" American F7s on tri-axle bogies, the earlier ones having a middle idler axle to spread the weight, as American practice was for two traction motor trucks. The initial delivery of six in 1951 marked the occasion of the first Australian excursion into using an American main-line engine, and there was considerable political "flack" raised which, as one would expect, was totally ignored by the Commonwealth!

This same flack had caused the failure of the SAR to be allowed to order identical units, being told forcibly by the central government that it was a case of either "rolling your own" or "Buying British". That was why the SAR built the 900 class themselves, with English Electric traction equipment and four-stroke engine, in an Islington constructed carbody that was almost identical (but marginally shorter) than the classic American Alco PA. The first 900, named "Lady Norrie" after the wife of the Governor of South Australia, was placed in service just ten days before Clyde delivered the Commonwealth's GM1, named after the Prime Minister of Australia, Sir Robert Gordon Menzies. Lady Norrie entered service first, not quite completed, in order to win the race for who got there first, and when retired thirty years later, was still not quite finished! Interestingly, she was the only locomotive in the entire fleet to be commissioned with the internal pipework colour-coded for easy maintenance (nowadays an industrial standard), a feature which was lost on her first overhaul when everything internally was repainted the one shade of grey.

Illustration of Lady Norrie

Victoria and New South Wales, however, succeeded with their GM order, and Clyde who had built (among other things) steam locomotives, the best known probably being 3801, obtained the General Motors franchise; this was an interesting piece of history, well described in print in "The ML2 Story" written by a Victorian driver, Peter Bermingham. The ML1 was the Commonwealth GM, the ML2 was the Victorian double-ended version, their B-class. Later locomotives of the ML1 type were termed A7 (NSW 42-class, and much later, Victorian S-class and subsequent CR GMs); it has been suggested that A7 referred to an Australian "F7" classification.

Both of the subsequent types of the GM class had six traction motors instead of four, and where GM1 - GM6 had 1500hp EMD567 engines, improved engine and control design moved the power progressively to 1750hp in 1955 and then 1800hp (still using 567's) for the last units which were equipped with dynamic brakes to reduce the wear on brake shoes bringing Leigh Creek coal to the Port Augusta Power station on a steady downgrade. The Commonwealth's main line, however, did not have the grades to justify the additional cost of dynamic braking equipment between Port Augusta and Kalgoorlie. Similar dynamic braking facilities had been provided with the Victorian S-class and the NSW 42-class.

Illustration of B class, 42 Class, S class at Mile End loco, GM somewhere else, plus GM with DB

New generation engines
Shortly after the Western Australian "L class" (EMD GT26C derivative) had been found to be a successful and flexible hauler of heavy loads, the Commonwealth ordered a full width carbody (classified as model AT26C) as their CL class. The L, introduced in about 1967, was the first Australian main line locomotive to have a horsepower rating as high as 3300, which was due in part to the then new idea of using an alternator as its main generator, and also the employing of the larger and more efficient 16-cylinder 645 engine. The GM-EMD engine classification refers to the number of cubic inches of swept volume in each cylinder, and in a 645 engine equates to 10.6 litres per cylinder, or 170 litres for the complete 16-cylinder engine! The 567 engine, in comparison, is 9.3 litres per cylinder, or 150 litres for a 16-cylinder unit. The alternator delivered a bit over 4 MVA, or slightly more than 4 Megawatts of electrical power for traction. CLs started in service on February 9th 1970, just in time for the milestone in railway history two weeks later.

Illustrations of L class

A point of interest here is that the inaugural "Indian-Pacific" from Sydney to Perth, postponed a number of times because of the inevitable Australian industrial dispute - in this case several over demarcation of whose workers were going to do what and where - arrived at Kalgoorlie from Sydney, Broken Hill and Port Pirie many hours behind schedule, in fact behind CL1 on its first revenue run, in multiple with two GM class power, ex Port Pirie on 24th February. Two L class then took it the rest of the way into Perth, making up all of the lost time, arriving within one minute of schedule, at 1101 on 26th February 1970, and very impressive that was, although the radio announcer commentating to the assembled crowd on the arrival made an unfortunate uninformed blunder in his describing the lettering on the brand new stainless steel Comeng-Budd cars as being "Commonwealth Railways of Australia".

Illustrations at Perth Terminal on arrival

Another milestone was acchieved by a member of the CL class when CL3 double-headed the "Western Endeavour" with classic NSW steam locomotive 3801 (also built by Clyde) over the Port Augusta to Kalgoorlie section (of the Sydney to Perth route) across the waterless expanse of the Nullarbor Plain during August 1970. On the return trip, the front engine was CL5. Because of the impossibility of sufficient water being able to be supplied for 3801 over this distance ( 2461 miles or 4430 kilometres), the CL was provided to pull the NSW Rail Transport Museum train, allowing 3801 to stay in steam over this difficult section. At a photostop and service at Cook, the CL detached and ran light through the station, out of sight, to permit 3801 to haul its fourteen passenger cars of various types, two extra water tankers, and spare parts van. A similar steam powered run across the South Australian-Western Australian border was conducted.

Those who understand steam engines would realise that although doing no work, the engine would still accumulate large amounts of clinker in the grate, which would need considerable physical effort to break up into small pieces and remove.

Illustrations from RTM book "West by Steam"

The 3300hp CL was a single cab unit described by Clyde (its manufacturer) as model AT26C; while a few of the earlier GMs had an apology for a "B end" cab fitted with very limited controls for shunting purposes; this had proved to be unsuccessful, so the controls were removed and the single driver side window replaced with sheet steel. Victorian "S-class" and NSW "42-class" were similarly (but differently) supplied.

All the CLs were therefore single-ended, and had been purchased some seven years before ANR was formed, to run in multiple with other CLs and GMs of any of the three versions existing on the system at that time, as trains had by now grown to such a length and weight that at least two engines were required on all, these usually being marshalled back-to-back to avoid the need for turning at their destinations. Certainly all the shunt goods trains were headed by two GMs back-to-back at this time. CLs were very effective on an express goods when paired with a GM which had the great ability to move a load from zero up to 20 or so km/hr, and from this point the CLs "took over" with great success.

Shortly after the ANR came into existence, a need started to be demonstrated for further high horsepower, and with the nationalistic push of the Whitlam federal government, coupled with their natural desire for what in colonial days was called "showing the flag", orders were placed for further locomotives to make the transfer of longer and heavier goods trains from Broken Hill and Port Pirie to Kalgoorlie and Perth more feasible. It was during this era that construction of the first new railway line for many years also happened, that at the western end of the Port Augusta yard (subsequently called Spencer Junction) and the iron and steel city of Whyalla, and this obviously would create the need for additional power to haul the steel products trains that would roll out of Whyalla.

When the ALs started arriving from Clyde towards the end of 1976, they were also EMD (classified as model JT26C), and they were very impressive, appearing to be longer than anything previously seen, but this was actually an optical illusion as the overall length was within an inch or two of the CLs. These were, once again, a full width carbody, with mansard roof like the CLs, fully pressurised against the desert dust, and for the first time, airconditioned for the crew. Surprisingly, though, they were double cab units. An extra return air vent was subsequently added to the carbody on the observer's side at the B end to let air out to the atmosphere, to balance the high level of internal pressurising needed to keep dust out. Apart from initial over-weight problems on delivery, they were a good class. Technically they were similar to the CLs, but they had an identical flat front and rear, and a control station at both ends to allow single unit running without turning, though anecdotal evidence suggests they rarely ran singly (except light engine).

The ALs were delivered in the Commonwealth Railways livery of maroon with a silver waist band, but with the annotation Australian National Railways on the lower body side panels. Design was very similar in looks to the planned 81-class ordered by NSWGR, but the 81s were fitted with later technology internally and also had a longer and different body when actually built. The ALs were supplied for freight service on the trans-Australia line (which included Whyalla traffic), and had a reputation of plenty of power both at low speeds, and at 80km/hr which was the maximum permitted at that time. They were also built with the future all-weather standard gauge line to Alice Springs in mind. Very occasional passenger use occurred, with class leader AL18 (Malcolm Fraser) hauling the first standard gauge "Ghan" consist into Alice Springs on 9th October 1980.

Illustration of original AL livery vs the CR livery

We may examine (in a subsequent article) the narrow-gauge motive power operated by the Commonwealth at that time, and which eventually found its way on to the all-freight wheat belt lines of the Eyre Peninsular, the isolated Port Lincoln Division. This includes the single cab lower power narrow gauge version of the NSW 422, classified by the Commonwealth as their NJ class (and painted remarkably like the NSW 422), and purchased for use on the narrow gauge Marree to Alice Springs line in its last few years before the route was replaced by an all-weather standard gauge track running almost due north from the Trans-Australia line at Tarcoola.

Illustrations of NJ

Super Series engines
Further high horsepower was needed, particularly over the back-breaking Adelaide-Melbourne route which had ruling grades of 1 in 40 with 40-chain radius curves over its climb and fall on each side of the Mount Lofty Ranges in the Adelaide to Murray Bridge section. This resulted in the first true AN locomotive, which was the BL class - the maker's model identification was JT26C-SS; the SS designating "Super Series" of greater technology. This engine looked very much like an AL but with a green paint job when it first arrived, but when the ALs were repainted in AN livery, the different position of the yellow block carrying the identification number and logo made the class difference very noticeable. There were other subtle differences, both to be seen with the eye, and technically. Quite obvious were the positions of the four portholes, and the completely flat roof which on the ALs sloped down at about ten degrees over the cabs at both ends. Slightly different vents on the sides associated with airconditioning changed several times during service.

The main technical difference appeared in the modular control equipment which included General Motors' wheel slip detection system, which allowed much greater control particularly when climbing the 1-in-40 grades through the Adelaide Hills on the Melbourne main line, noticeably when hauling long heavy loads around the 40-chain radius curves at the same time, in an area also known for sudden unexpected plagues of millipedes on the rails. The BL, and its almost identical sister, the first series of the Victorian G-class, were later developments of the NSW 81-class, but shorter and with a different under sill arrangement, a different porthole window arrangement, and a slightly later version of the EMD modular control system. The controlling software which assigned available horsepower to the traction motors was the essential difference between each of these three classes of engine, the BL's speciality was lifting enormous freight mass through the Adelaide Hills.

However, half of the order were to be equipped with standard gauge bogies, the rationale being that they would take the bogie-exchanged broad-gauge trains on from Dry Creek to Port Augusta.

Illustrations of ALs, BLs, delivery of first BL (27)

The BL and G bodies and under-frames reverted to the ten years earlier AL class design including bogie details, instead of being look-alikes to the NSW 81s which had been built in the mean while, although this time they were without sand boxes on the frames as the ALs had. All of the BLs were designed and built by a Clyde subsidiary located on the Gillman marshalling yard located between Dry Creek and Port Adelaide. G's were built back in the "eastern states".

Illustrations of Clyde at Rosewater including B to A conversion of first one

A point should be made of slight livery variations to ANR/AN locomotives, to permit signalmen and yard staff to know at a glance whether a locomotive (and presumably the train behind it) moving on mixed gauge track were on broad or standard gauge wheelsets. In Gladstone and Peterborough this was quite critical - both being three gauge yards - and an unofficial route code board had been used on the driver's ends of Alco 700 and 930 classes used in the Peterborough Division, a large letter "S" distinguishing standard gauge, whereas the broad gauge units would carry the broad gauge route indicator for the particular line, a St. George's (or vertical) cross for the Adelaide-Peterborough line, for example.

With multiple gauge switches (points), some of which permitted one gauge to diverge from the other one or two, it was always a potential hazard in yard movements at Peterborough, Gladstone, and Port Pirie, although in SAR days the original intention had been to paint SG engines in mustard yellow with a maroon waist stripe, and BG units in maroon with a silver stripe for quick identification. The exception to this rule was the original livery of the 600s which were at one time used to haul the prestigious Indian Pacific passenger train, on standard gauge track but painted bright red and silver to partly match thestainless steel of the train's carriages! Twenty years later, this philosophy was resurrected with the rebuilt CLs which were assigned to passenger train haulage being painted predominately silver.

When the green and yellow livery was first applied, the broad gauge BLs had the dual yellow stripe continued down below the corporate logo on the cab end and over the anticlimber. The illustrations of the first BL class to be delivered (for Standard Gauge) in 1982 - BL27 (NOT BL26) show this quite clearly to be missing. All ALs, CLs and GMs were standard gauge units, which after repainting green were thus identified by the completely black anticlimber. BL26 (the class leader), was to be named after the Prime Minister of the day (Bob Hawke) but until this dignitary was able to spare the time to attend a naming ceremony in his honour, it could not happen until after many units had been issued to service, and their numbers had been altered to allow for consecutive numbers to be issued from the factory. BL26 was actually the last into service, allocated to Broad Gauge.

There were exceptions, of course. A pair of GMs was for some months allocated to the South Line for Mount Gambier to Adelaide (and intermediate points) towards the end of the broad gauge era on that route, but they still carried the black anticlimber paint scheme. Equally, some 930 Alcos were lifted on to standard gauge bogies when the Port Pirie line was first standardised, and some retained their broad gauge yellow line over the black headstock (Alcos did not have anticlimbers).

Illustration of 700 at Peterborough, of BL26+Overland at Keswick, of GM+Trans at Mile End Junction, to show gauge indication

The original fleet had been aging to the point that a large proportion was at this time over twenty years old. All except the BL-class were of older technology, and management was becoming aware of the ability of more expensive more modern systems to reduce fuel consumption (and therefore cost) through automation of certain driving aspects. It was decided to order a new class, the DL, which was a single ended full width carbody quite similar in profile to the American F40PH as used extensively by Amtrak on passenger service in the USA, although the DL was to use the 12-cylinder EMD 710 2-stroke engine to develop as much horsepower as the 16-cylinder 645 predecessor. Classified as model AT-42C, these were to be capable of working in multiple with GMs, CLs, ALs, BLs, Victorian G's, Westrail L's, NSW 81s and 422s, and so on. The DLs were built by Clyde at Bathurst. Fifteen were delivered.

Illustrations of DL and F40PH

AN then dramatically changed its policy, which with hindsight may be partly attributable to the drying up of funds from its owners, the Commonwealth (Federal) government of Australia.

The DL class were followed by the 15-strong EL class (in 1990) in which AN not only accepted a tender from alternative manufacturer Goninan, supplying General Electric "Dash-8" technology, but they did not purchase the units either, prefering to lease them because of their financial situation. The EL's (immediately nicknamed "Taragos" after the shape of the Toyota people-mover) are a class which appear not to have been as successful as it should; anecdotal evidence suggests that during their very short career, they were never able to lift tonnage, nor run in other ways to the satisfaction of the operator, although opinion varies somewhat according to whom one speaks. Although officially a mixed traffic engine, they appear to have been much more suited to passenger and fast light freight (Trailer Rail) operations. At the end of 1998 they were still being advertised for sale by the Commonwealth after being unwanted by any other rail organisations, and were then being stored geographically outside of South Australia while ownership financial arrangements were being worked out, although both National Rail and the privatised operator of the SA freight division had evaluated them for several months before rejecting their use as a freight unit. Eventually they were sold to a Chicago-based rail plant leasing company, their future being unknown to this writer at this time. Their remaining spare parts were shipped to Bassendean from Islington in early 1999.

Illustrations of ELs and ANs

The last class ordered was from from Clyde was the AN, also a single ended full width carbody similar in looks to the EL but this time, again with EMD equipment, and a powerful 16-cylinder 710 engine. Their classification was model AT46C. These were also capable of working in multiple with GMs, CLs, ALs, BLs, Victorian G's (similar in all respects to the BL class), Westrail L's, NSW 81s and 422s, and so on. AN1 was delivered in 1992, and eleven were delivered. This was the first Clyde-built standard gauge class whose class leader was not named.

Thus ends this chapter, on a sombre note.


Reference material:
The author of this site has read all of the following publications at one time or another, in some cases particular sections several times, in order to write the historical portions here. Tribute should also be given to Patsy Adam-Smith, daughter of a Victorian railwayman during the depression years, and who did some fascinating things during her life, not the least interesting being the authoring of a number of books about Australian railway history.

Alas, I am unable to quote from her works as the copies I had appear to be "missing" as a result of one of many moves.

Some of the books listed are out of print - some for many years. I hope to publish "samples" from them accessible from the "memorabilia" page if and when copyright permission is able to be obtained...

The A7 Era - Victoria's S class - Peter Bermingham - Horsepower Histories 1995
All Stations West - the Sydney-Perth Standard Gauge Railway - G H Fearnside - Halldane 1970
Along the line in Western Australia - J Richardson - Traction Pubs 1968
The Broad Way to Port Pirie 1937 - 1982 - J Ramsay - ARHS 1982
The First 100 Years of the Pichi Richi Railway - Babbage & Barrington - PRRPS 1980
The Ghan - Basil Fuller - Rigby 1975
Historical Notes on Australian railways - NSWGR (undated, perhaps 1970)
Historically Insoluable Railway Problems in South Australia - Reece Jennings - Nesfield 1979
Inauguration of the Pertth-Port Pirie Standard Gauge Passenger Service - WAGR 1969
Line Clear - 100 years of Safeworking Adelaide-Serviceton - Reece Jennings - MERM 1986
Locomotives of Australian National - Sampson & Fluck - MERM 1982
The ML2 Story - Victoria's B class - Peter Bermingham - RTRG 1982
On Track - The making of Westrail 1950-1976 - Fred Affleck - Westrail 1978
Over the Range - across the Darling Range of WA - G J Higham - ARHS 1968
Progress and Achievement of the West Australian Government Railways - WAGR 1970
Rails Around Adelaide - Robert Sampson - MERM 1978
Rails to the Top End - Adelaide-Darwin Transcontinental Railway - R Bromby - Cromarty 1982
South Australian Railways - Locomotives and Rolling stock - SAR 1972
Souvenir of the Inauguration of the "Indian Pacific" - WAGR 1970
Standard Gauge Railway Across Australia - William A Bayley - RAHS 1973
The Tarrawingee Tramway - Cyril Henshaw - Railmac 1984
The Victor Harbor Railway Line - J Ramsey - ARHS 1984
Various locomotive and rolling-stock fleetbooks - Railmac Publications
West by Steam - the Story of the First Steam Train to cross Australia - NSWRTM 1972
Westrail Achievements - Westrail 1976
Westrail in Focus - Ken Raynes - Railmac 1982


Updated on 1st May, 1999, using the Australian HTML editor "Flex-Ed"